Leucemia mielomonocítica aguda y drepanocitosis no tratada con hidroxiurea: A propósito de un caso / Acute Melanocytic Leukemia and Drepanocytosis non-treated with hydroxyurea a case report

Anadely Gámez Pérez, Humberto Gámez Oliva, Alfredo Pérez Pedraza, Yaneisy González Portales, Massiel C. Bravo Hernández

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Resumen

Las enfermedades malignas asociadas a la anemia drepanocítica han sido reportadas previamente en un reducido número de pacientes, con el advenimiento de la terapia con hidroxiurea se ha observado un incremento en el riesgo de cáncer en estos enfermos; en nuestro caso clínico no se recoge el antecedente de ingestión de este medicamento. Paciente masculino de 25 años de edad, que acude con crisis hepática, con aumento de ictericia y bilirrubina a expensas de la directa, valores elevados de la transaminasa, hepatomegalia y caída de las cifras de hemoglobina a 40 g/L, blastos de un diámetro de 25 mc, granulares, algunos con núcleos de aspecto monocitoide, componente monocítico en periferia igual a 15%, conteo de leucocitos 120 x109/l,medulograma 80% de células blásticas, componente monocítico mayor del 20%, concluyéndose como Leucemia Mielomonocítica Aguda (LMA M4) según estudios citoquímicos diagnósticos además de un aumento de la lisozima y muramidasa superior a 13 mg lis/ml de plasma (Na acetatoesterasas ) positivo (NASA). Se realiza la plasmaféresis y la exanguinotransfusión haciendo dos recambios con amplia hidratación sin respuesta satisfactoria; el paciente fallece el tercer día del diagnóstico debido a Insuficiencia Respiratoria Aguda. Por lo inusual que resulta y por no existir casos reportados en la literatura Internacional de Síndrome Mieloproliferativo Agudo asociado a la Drepanocitosis no tratados con hidroxiurea, los autores presentan este caso clínico.

Palabras clave: Hemoglobinopatía, drepanocitosis, síndrome mieloproliferativo agudo.

ABSTRACT

Malignant diseases related to sickle-cell anemia have been previously reported in a reduced number of patients, the risk of suffering from cancer in those patients have increased with the advent of the hydroxyurea treatment. In this case no evidence of being taken this medication was proved. A 25-years old male presenting hepatic crisis, jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia, high levels of transaminase, hepatomegaly and low red blood cell counts (40 g/l), blast cells of 25 µm in diameter, granular cell presenting nucleus of monocytic-like cells (some of them), monocytic component in periphery equal to 15 %, leucocytes counts 120x109/l, medullogram: 80 % of blast cells, monocytic component greater than 20 %, concluded as Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (AML M4) diagnostic cyto-chemical studies showed an increase of lysozyme and muramidase higher than 13 mg lis/ml of plasma (a positive Na acetatoesterases). A plasmapheresis and ex-transfusion and two rechanges, deep rehydration. No satisfactory response was observed and the patient died on the third day with a diagnose of acute respiratory insufficiency. Because of this unsual disorder and no other cases described by the medical literature as an Acute Myeloproliferative Syndrome in association to Drepanocytosis non-treated with Hydroxyurea motivated the authors to present this case report.

Key words: Hemoglobinopathies; drepanocytosis, acute myeloproliferative syndrome.

Referencias

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